Women insecure at every level.

Libya joins the ranking in the bottom dozen, in 158th place. The country performs especially poorly on security. Levels of organized violence are high, and more than two in five women feel unsafe walking alone at night, behind only Syria in the region. More than 1 in 10 women have experienced intimate partner violence in the past year, and laws do not specifically prohibit domestic violence. Performance is also weak on the inclusion and justice dimensions. Fewer than a quarter of women are employed, and Libya ranks in the bottom five countries globally on discriminatory norms (whether men agree that it is acceptable for women to work outside the home). Women reportedly face discrimination in marriage, divorce, inheritance, and nationality. They are restricted in their mobility and are highly vulnerable to sexual harassment and assault.

Our measure of legal discrimination reveals 39 discriminatory laws in Libya. Women cannot be the head of a house-hold in the same way that men can, they cannot inherit property equally, and their testimony in court does not carry the same evidentiary weight.

However, there has been some progress. Libya recently introduced a law mandating equal pay for equal work. Women hold 16 percent of parliamentary seats, above the 10 percent quota. Women played a major role in the 2011 uprising against the Gaddafi government and have been instrumental in rebuilding civil society. Libya is one of a handful of countries (the others are United Arab Emirates, Finland, Bahrain, and Iraq) where nearly all women report having a mobile cellphone.