During the Age of Mass Migration ð1850–1913Þ, the United States main- tained an open border, absorbing 30 million European immigrants. Prior cross-sectional work finds that immigrants initially held lower- paid occupations than natives but converged over time. In newly assem- bled panel data, we show that, in fact, the average immigrant did not face a substantial occupation-based earnings penalty upon first arrival and experienced occupational advancement at the same rate as natives. Cross-sectional patterns are driven by biases from declining arrival co- hort skill level and departures of negatively selected return migrants. We show that assimilation patterns vary substantially across sending coun- tries and persist in the second generation.
A Nation of Immigrants: Assimilation and Economic Outcomes in the Age of Mass Migration
What Racism Costs Us All
Joseph Losavio. “What Racism Costs Us All.” IMF. September 2020. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/fandd/issues/2020/09/the-economic-cost-of-racism-losavio.
The Economic Cost of Gender-Based Discrimination in Social Institutions
Gaëlle Ferrant and Alexandre Kolev. “The economic cost of gender-based discrimination in social institutions.” OECD Development Centre. June 2016.