This article analyzes governmental foreign policy options targeted at global norm institutionalization. Based on domestic push and international pull factors, the article develops a framework for the analysis of different foreign policy strategies that have implications for different outcomes of global norm institutionalization. This variance is then exemplified by four case studies of US foreign policy and the fight against transnational crime—namely money laundering, corruption, human trafficking, and illicit arms trafficking. The result shows that variance in the institutionalization of global norms is caused by varying support of the norm on the national and international level.
Global Norms and US Foreign Policy Change: the Governance of Transnational Crime
What Racism Costs Us All
Joseph Losavio. “What Racism Costs Us All.” IMF. September 2020. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/fandd/issues/2020/09/the-economic-cost-of-racism-losavio.
The Economic Cost of Gender-Based Discrimination in Social Institutions
Gaëlle Ferrant and Alexandre Kolev. “The economic cost of gender-based discrimination in social institutions.” OECD Development Centre. June 2016.