Inclusion and Diversity in Work Groups: A Review and Model for Future Research

  • Citation: Shore, Lynn M, Amy E. Randel, Beth G. Chung, and Michelle A. Dean. “Inclusion and Diversity in Work Groups: A Review and Model for Future Research.” Journal of Management 37, no. 4 (2011).
    • Topics:
    • Business and Trade
    • Keywords:
    • inclusion
    • diversity
    • work group
    • exclusion
    • optimal distinctiveness theory

A great deal of research has focused on work group diversity, but management scholars have only recently focused on inclusion. As a result, the inclusion literature is still under development, with limited agreement on the conceptual underpinnings of this construct. In this article, the authors first use Brewer’s optimal distinctiveness theory to develop a definition of employee inclusion in the work group as involving the satisfaction of the needs of both belongingness and uniqueness. Building on their definition, the authors then present a framework of inclusion. Their framework is subsequently used as a basis for reviewing the inclusion and diversity literature. Potential contextual factors and outcomes associated with inclusion are suggested in order to guide future research.

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