Between the late 1950s and the late 1970s fertility began a persistent major decline in countries containing almost four-fifths of the world’s population. The exceptions that did not follow within a further decade were nearly all found in three regions: sub-Saharan Africa, Arab Southwest Asia, and Melanesia. The range of populations involved in the decline was unpredicted and unprecedented. Few developing countries had ever before had a sustained fertility decline, while the West had immediately beforehand been experiencing either stable fertility levels or, because of the postwar “baby boom,” rising levels.
The Globalization of Fertility Behavior
What Racism Costs Us All
Joseph Losavio. “What Racism Costs Us All.” IMF. September 2020. https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/fandd/issues/2020/09/the-economic-cost-of-racism-losavio.
The Economic Cost of Gender-Based Discrimination in Social Institutions
Gaëlle Ferrant and Alexandre Kolev. “The economic cost of gender-based discrimination in social institutions.” OECD Development Centre. June 2016.