The Transformation of Title IX

Regulating Gender Equality in Education

Authored by: R. Shep Melnick

Categories: Human Rights, Statebuilding
Sub-Categories: Human Development, Sexual and Gender-Based Violence (SGBV)
Country: United States
Region: North America
Year: 2018
Citation: Melnick, R. Shep. The Transformation of Title IX: Regulating Gender Equality in Education. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, 2018. JSTOR.

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Executive Summary

Few laws have had such far-reaching impact as Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972. Intended to give girls and women greater access to sports programs and other courses of study in schools and colleges, the law has since been used by judges and agencies to expand a wide range of antidiscrimination policies―most recently the Obama administration’s 2016 mandates on sexual harassment and transgender rights.

In this comprehensive review of how Title IX has been implemented, Boston College political science professor R. Shep Melnick analyzes how interpretations of “equal educational opportunity” have changed over the years. In terms accessible to non-lawyers, Melnick examines how Title IX has become a central part of legal and political campaigns to correct gender stereotypes, not only in academic settings but in society at large. Title IX thus has become a major factor in America’s culture wars―and almost certainly will remain so for years to come.